Download Barr's The Human Nervous System: An Anatomical Viewpoint by John Kiernan MB ChB PhD DSc, Raj Rajakumar PDF
By John Kiernan MB ChB PhD DSc, Raj Rajakumar
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Additional info for Barr's The Human Nervous System: An Anatomical Viewpoint
Thus, the sum of the postsynaptic responses in the receptive field of a neuron determines whether, at any given moment, an impulse will be sent along the axon. Some neurotransmitters act rapidly (within milliseconds) by binding to ionotropic receptors, which are also the ion channels in the membrane. Other substances, notably the peptides, have more protracted actions (within seconds, minutes, or hours). Slowly acting transmitters or modulators bind to metabotropic receptors associated with G proteins.
The cell bodies of somatic efferent neurons (also called motor neurons) are in the ventral gray horns of the spinal cord and motor nuclei of cranial nerves. The axons of ventral horn cells traverse the ventral roots and spinal nerves and terminate in motor end plates on skeletal muscle fibers. The visceral efferent or autonomic system has a special feature, in that at least two neurons participate in transmission from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or secretory cells (Fig. 3-2). Chapter 3: Peripheral Nervous System 37 Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or secretory cells Central nervous system Autonomic ganglion Skeletal muscle FIGURE 3-2 Comparison of autonomic and somatic innervation.
The astrocytes in the nervous tissue on each side of the collagenous scar generate longer and more numerous cytoplasmic processes, which form a tangled mass. The number of astrocytes does not increase appreciably, but there is a large increase in the total cell population caused mainly by emigration of monocytes from blood vessels to form phagocytic cells known as reactive microglia. The resting microglia that were present before the injury also transform into phagocytes. The degeneration of severed central axons and their sheaths is different from the process of Wallerian degeneration in peripheral nerves.